A lottery is a game in which people buy tickets, and winners are selected by chance (often through machines). The prize money may be lump sum or paid in instalments. Some state and charitable organizations also hold lotteries to raise funds. Other types of lotteries involve selecting participants for subsidized housing, kindergarten placements, and other similar activities.
The word lottery is probably derived from the Latin verb lotto, meaning “fateful choice” or “divine chance.” Ancient Rome used lotteries as an entertaining activity during Saturnalian feasts and parties by distributing fancy items like dinnerware to each of the guests who held a ticket. Later, the Roman Emperor Augustus organized a lottery to give away property and slaves.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, Europeans started to organize public lotteries to raise money for town fortifications, to help the poor, and to aid war efforts. These were called “revenue lotteries.” Privately organized lotteries were also popular, with the Boston Mercantile Journal reporting that in 1832 more than 420 lotteries had been conducted in eight states.
In colonial America, lotteries were important sources of income for many towns and helped to finance roads, libraries, canals, churches, colleges, and other public projects. Some of the nation’s first colleges were founded by lotteries, including Princeton and Columbia. The Continental Congress voted to hold a national lottery in 1776 to raise money for the American Revolution, but this plan was abandoned. However, the Continental Congress did authorize state lotteries to fund government services without imposing onerous taxes on middle- and working-class citizens.